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Science Ideas and Concepts

Scientific study requires a basic knowledge and understanding of ideas and concepts. This collection explains the ideas that are fundamental to A Fizzy Rock.

  • Limestone origins – Information Sheet

    Limestone is a common sedimentary rock consisting of more than 50% calcium carbonate. Its origins can be traced back to either chemical or biochemical processes that occurred in the geological past. 

  • New Zealand limestone origins – Information Sheet

    The most widely distributed limestones in New Zealand formed during the Oligocene epoch. The properties of these limestones indicate they originated mainly in shallow temperate seawater. 

  • Calcium carbonate biomineralisation – Information Sheet

    Biomineralisation refers to the processes by which living things form minerals. For example, calcium carbonate biomineralisation is used extensively by marine invertebrates to build structures that give support and protection.

  • Carbonate chemistry – Information Sheet

    Calcium carbonate is the principal mineral component of limestone. Its chemical and physical properties lie behind the societal use of limestone and the unique limestone landscapes of the countryside. 

  • Cold-seep carbonates – Information Sheet

    Cold seeps are places on the seafloor where cold methane-rich water escapes. They occur most often at tectonic plate boundaries. Carbonate deposits and communities of organisms are often found at these sites. 

  • Limestone landscapes – Information Sheet

    Limestone is one of the most common sedimentary rocks found in New Zealand. Eye-catching features such as caves, sinkholes and spectacular skyline landscapes are often associated with limestone formations. 

  • Limestone uses – Information Sheet

    The calcium carbonate content of limestone rocks has been used from the earliest civilisations. Today, it is a valuable resource that services the needs of a multitude of industries.